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Glossary of Speech and Language Related Terms

1. Advocate One that pleads in another’s behalf; an intercessor: one that defends or maintains a cause or proposal
2. American Speech and Hearing Association The American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA) is the professional, scientific, and credentialing association for audiologists, speech-language pathologists, and speech, language, and hearing scientists. Their mission is to ensure that all people with speech, language, and hearing disorders have access to quality services to help them communicate more effectively.
3. Aphasia Partial or total loss of the ability to articulate ideas or comprehend spoken or written language, resulting from damage to the brain caused by injury or disease.
4. Aphonia Loss of the voice resulting from disease, injury to the vocal cords, or various psychological causes.
5. Applied Behavioral Analysis ABA is a method to change behavior. It consists of delivery of systematic directions that elicit responses from the student which are consistently reinforced. The theory is that reinforced behavior will reoccur. ABA is a discipline that requires consistency, behavior prompting and rewards for correct behavior or approximations of correctness.
6. Articulation Disorder Characterized by the inability to produce individual speech sounds clearly and difficulty combining sounds correctly for words.
7. Asperger Syndrome Asperger Syndrome, also known as Asperger’s Disorder or Autistic Psychopathy, is a Pervasive Developmental Disorder (PDD) characterized by severe and sustained impairment in social interaction, development of restricted and repetitive patterns of behavior, interests, and activities. These characteristics result in clinically significant impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning. In contrast to Autistic disorder (Autism), there are no clinically significant delays in language or cognition, self help skills or in adaptive behavior, other than social interaction.
8. Assessment Formal (e.g., standardized tests) and informal procedures used to identify a person’s unique needs, strengths, weaknesses, learning style, and nature and extent of intervention services needed. Assessment may be interchangeable with “Evaluation,” and it is at this clinic.
9. Associative Play When children play with each other, sharing the same materials and activities in an unorganized way. At this level the children may be involved in play related to the same theme (e.g., playing blocks, playing “police/firefighter”) but not have organized scenarios with a common goal in their play. Each child purses his/her own unique ideas. Predominateds between 30-36 months.
10. Attention Deficit Disorder ADD/ADHD in the DSM (Diagnostic Statistical Manuel) IV refers to 1) Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Combined Type, 2) Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder/Predominately Inattentive Type, or 3) Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder/Predominately Hyperactive-Impulsive Type. Overall, behaviors include hyperactivity, impulsivity, and inattention, depending on the diagnosis. These behaviors must occur to a degree, which is maladaptive and inconsistent with developmental level, and occur in at least two settings over a period of at least 6 months. These behaviors may interfere with speech/language learning, academic performance and social activities (e.g., making friends, sustaining friendships. The disorder is diagnosed before the age of 7, or symptoms were present before this age. There must also be the presence of related impairment in social, academic, or occupational functioning. For examples of related behaviors and symptoms of ADD/ADHD, please click on “Understanding” and then “Other Impairments and Disorders” at the top of this screen. Scroll down to ADD/ADHD.
11. Audiologist A professional who specializes in the identification, testing, habilitation and rehabilitation of hearing loss and hearing related disorders (e.g., central auditory processing disorder). A person who is also extensively trained in the anatomy and physiology of the audtiory mechanism, counseling for hearing disorders, and diagnostic testing/fitting of hearing aids as well as assistive listening devices.
12. Auditory Perceptual Processing Disorder or Central Auditory Also referred to as an auditory percetpual problem, central auditory dysfunction or central auditory processing disorder (CAPD). It can be defined as difficulty in listening to or comprehending auditory information, especially under less optimal listening conditions (e.g., background noise). It is a condition wherein a person does not process speech/language correctly. They may have difficulties knowing where sound has occurred and indentifying the source of the sound or in distinguishing one sound from another. Children and adults with CAPD are diverse and have difficulty using auditory information to communicate and learn. For more information, please click on “Understanding” and then “Auditory Perceptual Processing Disorder” at the top of the screen.
13. Auditory Processing The auditory system, mechanism, and processes responsible for the following: sound localization and lateralization, auditory discrimination, auditory pattern recognition, temporal aspects of audition, and auditory performance with competing acoustic signals.
14. Autism Autism is a complex developmental disability that appears during the first three years of life. The result of a neurological disorder that affects the functioning of the brain, autism and its associated behaviors have been estimated to occur in as many as 1 in 500 individuals (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 1997). Autism is four times more prevalent in boys than girls and knows no racial, ethnic, or social boundaries. Family income, lifestyle, and educational levels do not affect the chance of autism’s occurrence. Per the DSM IV, autism includes delays and/or abnormal functioning (with onset prior to age 3) in at least one of the following areas: (1) social interaction, (2) language as used in social communication, or (3) symbolic or imaginative play. The disturbance is not better accounted for by Rett’s Disorder or Childhood Disintegrative Disorder. Futher, for a diagnosis, a total of six or more items from A, B and C (below), and at least two from A and one each from B and C must be present. See “Autism–Diagnositc Criteria” A, B and C below.
15. Autism–Diagnostic Criteria “A” A. Qualitative impairments in reciprocal social interaction: Marked impairment in the use of multiple nonverbal behaviors such as eye-to-eye gaze, facial expression, body posture, and gestures to regulate social interaction. Failure to develop peer relatiohships appropriate to developmental level. Lack of spontaneous seeking to share enjoyment, interest, or achievements with others. Lack of social or emotional reciprocity.
16. Autism–Diagnostic Criteria “B” B. Qualitative impairments in communication: A delay in, or total lack of, the development of spoken language (not accompanied by an attempt to compensate through alternative modes of communication such as gesture or mime). Marked impairment in the ability to initiate or sustain a conversation with others despite adequate speech. Sterotyped and repetitive use of language or idiosyncratic language. Lack of varied spontaneous make-believe play or social imitative play appropriate to developmental level.
17. Autism–Diagnostic Criteria “C” Restricted, repetitive, and sterotyped patterns of behavior, interest, or activity, emcompassing preoccupation with one or more sterotyped and restricted patterns of interest, abnormal either in intensity or focus. An apparently compulsive adherence to specific nonfunctional routines or rituals. Sterotyped and repetitive motor mannerisms (e.g., hand or finger flapping or twisting, complex whole body movements). Persistent preoccupation with parts of objects.
18. Autistic Spectrum Disorders May also be referred to as pervasive developmental disorders. Autistic spectrum disorders include Asperger syndrome, autism, and pervasive developmental disorders–not otherwise specified. They are neurological in origin and symptoms appear in the first few years of life. The disorders share a set of behavioral characteristics, but each child/adult shows symptoms and characteristics very differently. Autism is referred to as a spectrum disorder to signify these differences among those sharing a common diagnosis.
19. Behavior Management Plan A behavioral management plan tries to prevent maladaptive behaviors, teaches socially acceptable behaviors to take the place of unpleasant behaviors, and creates a crisis intervention plan.
20. Behavioral Therapist The Behavioral Therapist seeks to effect positive and lasting change by working with the client to modify their maladaptive thoughts and/or
21. California Speech and Hearing Association The State of California’s professional, scientific, and credentialing association for audiologists, speech-language pathologists, and speech, language, and hearing scientists.
22. Clinical Fellowship Year (CFY) An important transitional phase between supervised graduate-level practicum and the independent delivery of services. It is designed to foster the continued growth and integration of the knowledge, skills, and tasks of clinical practice in speech-language pathology consistent with ASHA’s current scope of practice. The CFY lasts a continuous 9 months while maintaining full-time employment (30+ hours a week).
23. Communication a. The exchange of thoughts, messages, or information, as by speech, signals, writing, or behavior. b. Interpersonal rapport. c. communications (used with a sing. or pl. verb). The art and technique of using words effectively and with grace in imparting one’s ideas.
24. Congenital a. Existing at or before birth. b. Acquired at birth or during uterine. Developmental, as a result of either hereditary or environmental influences.
25. Constructive Play “Manipulation of objects for the purpose of constructing or creating something (Rubin, 1984). Children use materials to achieve a specific goal in mind that requires transformation of objects into a new configuration. Usually emerges around two years of age and predominates from age three on.
26. Cooperative Play When children plan, assign roles and play together it is referred to as cooperative play. Cooperative play is goal-oriented and children play in an organized manner toward a common end. Emerges around 36 to 48 months of age and continues through the school years.
27. Deficit A deficiency or impairment in mental or physical functioning.
28. Delay To perform below expected norms according to chronological age or grade level.
29. Developmental Disability Developmental Disabilities in infants and toddlers are displayed as significant differences between expected level of development for age and current level of functioning. Children with developmental disabilities are those who have a delay in one or more of the following areas: cognitive development; physical and motor development, including vision and hearing; communication development; social or emotional development; or adaptive development.
30. Developmental Language Disorder Children who do not develop language skills appropriately or according to language norms are language delayed or disordered.
31. Developmental Speech Disorder Children who do not develop speech production skills appropriately or according to normative data are speech delayed or disordered.
32. Diagnosis a. The act or process of identifying or determining the nature and cause of a disease or injury through evaluation of patient history, examination, and review of other significant data. b. The opinion derived from such an evaluation.
33. Disability The functional consequence of impairment
34. Discrete Trial Training Discrete trial training (DTT) is a method of behavioral intervention. DTT programs generally involve several hours of direct one-on-one instruction per day over many months or years and teach specific skills in an intensive manner. The discrete trial method has four distinct parts (according to Anderson et al, 1996): (1) the trainer’s presentation, (2) the child’s response, (3) the consequence, (4) a short pause between the consequence and the next instruction (between interval trials). In general, DTT programs target skills that are broken down into finite, discrete tasks. The behavioral therapist typically uses repetition, feedback, and positive reinforcers to help the child master small tasks. Once mastered, basic skills are used as building blocks to develop more complex abilities. Behavioral excesses such as tantrumming, aggression, and repetitive behaviors, may also be addressed. Not all programs using DTT follow the same program sequences or curriculum.
35. Disorder An ailment or condition that affects the function of mind or body:
36. DOB Date of Birth
37. Down Syndrome A congenital disorder, caused by the presence of an extra crititical portion of the 21st chromosome in all, or some, of one’s cells. This additional genetic material changes the developmental course, causing the charateristics associated with the syndrome. Those affected usually have mild to moderate mental retardation
38. Dysarthria Dysarthria is a motor speech disorder that is due to a paralysis, weakness, altered muscle tone or incoordination of the speech muscles. Speech is slow, weak, efforful, imprecise or uncoordinated. Voice and breathing for speech may also be affected.
39. Dysphagia A disorder/condition that affects an individual’s ability to swallow.
40. Dysphasia Impairment of speech and verbal comprehension; term often used when associated with stroke or brain injury.
41. Early Intervention Early intervention applies to children prior to school age who are discovered to have or be at risk of developing a handicapping condition or other special need that may affect their development. Early intervention consists of the provision of services for such children and their families for the purpose of lessening the effects of the condition. Early intervention can be remedial or preventive in nature–remediating existing developmental problems or preventing their occurrence.
42. Educational Model Therapy focuses on intervention to improve the child’s ability to learn and function in the school environment.
43. Educational Therapist A professional who uses educational and therapeutic approaches in working with clients of all ages with learning problems and learning disabilities. Educational Therapists perform professional work which requires applying the concepts, principles, and practices of education and rehabilitation therapy.
44. Emotionally Disturbed A disturbance which can be characterized by: an inability to build or maintain satisfactory interpersonal relationships; inappropriate types of behavior or feelings under normal circumstances; general pervasive mood of unhappiness or depression; or a tendency to develop physical symptoms or fears associated with personal or school problems. If frequently affects the ability to learn.
45. Evaluation An assessment of an individual’s abilities (i.e., speech and language, motoric, cognitive, etc.) in order to determine their strengths and weaknesses, and to see whether or not deficits are significant for intervention. It is usually the first thing that takes place to get a child qualified for service. The purpose is
46. Floor Play Therapy where skills such as speech, language and play are developed through floor-based play involving toys, games, activities, etc.
47. Fragile X Syndrome A genetic condition caused by a spontaneous partial break in the long arm of the X chromosome. Measurement of testes in males and a chromosome analysis helps confirm the diagnosis. There are often very few outward signs of Fragile X syndrome. The spectrum of the syndrome ranges from normal development to developmental delay, learning disabilities, mild-severe intellectural disability, autistic-like behavior and attentional problems. The majority of children are mildy to moderately affected.
48. Functional Play May also be a term used for “relational play” (seen between 9-24 months) denoting use of objects in play for the purposes for which they were intended, e.g., using simple objects correctly, combining related objects (man in car), and making objects do what they are made to do.
49. Habilitation The process (therapy) to make suitable for specific use
50. Handicap The loss or limitation of opportunities to take part in the life of the community on an equal level with others.
51. Hard of Hearing Broad term covering individuals with hearing loss ranging from mild to profound (deaf).
52. Health Management Organization A corporation financed by insurance premiums whose members, physicians and professional staff provide curative and preventive medicine within certain financial, geographic, and professional limits to enrolled volunteer members and their families.
53. Hearing Impaired Broad term covering individuals with hearing loss ranging from mild to profound (deaf).
54. High Functioning Autism Characteristics that are typically seen in individuals with “high functional autism” may include some of the following: average or above average IQ, superior vocabulary skills, higher rate of unusual obsessions, motor deficits (clumsiness), less impaired on “theory of mind” tests, and speech is less commonly delayed.
55. Hyperlexia A syndrome observed in children who have the following characteristics: an ability to read words, far above what would be expected at their chronological age, frequently an intense and early fascination with letters or numbers, significant difficulty in understanding/processing verbal language, abnormal social skills, and deficits in social/pragmatic communication abilities. Precocious reading abilities are developed spontaneously before the age of five; they are not taught.
56. ICD Code A universal billing system that utilizes a numeric format (codes) that differ as related to specific diagnosis. ICD stands for International Classification of Diseases.
57. Impairment An abnormality of structure or function
58. Individual Education Plan (IEP) A written plan for every student receiving special education services within the public school system. The plan contains information such as the student’s special learning needs and the specific special education services required by the student.
59. Infantile Autism A spectrum of neuropsychiatric disorders characterized by deficits in social interaction and communication, and unusual and repetitive behavior. Typically occurs within the first three years of life. Some, but not all people with autism, are non-verbal. Please see Autism in this glossary for more information.
60. Insurance Coverage a. Coverage by a contract binding a party to indemnify another against specified loss/conditions in return for premiums paid. b. The sum or rate for which such a contract insures something. c. The periodic premium paid for this coverage.
61. Intelligence Quotient The ratio of tested mental age to chronological age, usually expressed as a quotient multiplied by 100.
62. Landau-Kleffner syndrome (LKS) A disorder with seizures starting in childhood in which the patient loses skills, such as speech, and develops behavior characteristic of autism.
63. Language The use by human beings of voice sounds, and often written symbols representing these sounds, in organized combinations and patterns in order to express and communicate thoughts and feelings. Language also includes other forms of communication as well, e.g., use of symbols, gesture, and sign.
64. Language Based Learning Disability Disabilities which interfere with age-appropriate reading, spelling, and/or writing. Please see “Learning Disabilities” for a broader definition of learning disabiity. A language based learning disability is specific to language processing and use.
65. Language Comprehension Also called Receptive Language. A person’s ability to understand and process language at the sound, word, phrase, sentence, multi-sentence and conversational levels. Involves understanding of vocabulary, concepts, grammar (morphology and syntax), and higher level language associated with processing more abstract language (e.g., inferences, idioms, verbal problem solving and abstract reasoning). Also involves the ability to retain linguistic information for the purpose of understanding and interpretation. Difficulties with receptive language can interfere with academic or occupational achievement or with social communication
66. Learning Disabilities Disabilities affecting the manner one takes in information, retains it, and expresses the knowledge and understanding they have. Learning disabilities is a general term for a heterogeneous group of disorders manifested by significant difficulties in acquistion and use of listening, speaking, reading, writing, reasoning, or mathematical abilities. They are intrinsic to the individual, presumed to be due to central nervous system dysfunction, and may occur across the life span. Problems in self-regulatory behaviors, social perception, and social interaction may exist with learning disabilities but do not by themselves constitute a learning disability. Though learning disabilities may occur concomitantly with other handicapping conditions or with extrinsic influences, they are not the result of those conditions or influences (National Joint Committee on Learning Disabilities, 1981, revised 1988). See “Learning Disabilities–Continued” for other frequent characteristics.
67. Learning Disabilities–Continued Frequent characteristics of learning disabilities include, but are not limited to, a marked discrepancy between achievement and potential with uneven abilities within an individual, average to above average intellectual functioning, processing deficits (e.g., auditory and/or visual perceptual problems), and long/short term auditory and/or visual memory deficits.
68. Medical Model Therapy focuses on treatment to cure or alleviate specific underlying medical conditions.
69. Mental retardation Impaired intellectual ability that is equivalent to or less than an IQ of approximately 70 with onset before age 18, and presenting with concurrent impairments in adaptive functioning. The condidtion is manifested typically by abnormal development, learning difficulties, and problems in social adjustment
70. Multidisciplinary Team A group or team of disciplines that work, assess, report results, and/or deliver treatment to clients.
71. Non-Public School Agency (NPA) An approved, but unrelated, agency that provides a service to meet the needs/demands of a public school system.
72. Nonverbal Learning Disability A specific pattern of neuropsychological assets and deficits that eventuates in the following: a specific pattern of relative assets and deficits in academic (well-developed single-word reading and spelling relative to mechanical arithmetic) and social (e.g., more efficient use of verbal than nonverbal information in social situations) learning; specific, developmentally dependent patterns of psychosocial functioning.
73. Noonan’s Syndrome “A grouping of specific abnormalities affecting both males and females, both sporadic in appearance but also reflecting a hereditary component (thought to be autosomal dominant). Symptoms may include webbed neck, sternum abnormalities (pectus excavatum, occasionally pectus carinatum), sagging eyelids (ptosis), wide-set eyes (hypertelorism), low-set ears
abnormally shaped ears, undescended testicles, delayed puberty, mental retardation, short stature, and small penis.”
74. Occupational Therapist Provides evaluation and treatment of daily living skills for individuals with disabilities. Therapy emphasizes remediation of or compensation for perceptual, sensory, visual-motor, fine-motor, and self-care deficits.
75. Oral Motor Referring to the oral motor structures for speech, e.g., lips, tongue, teeth, palate, larynx, and so forth.
76. Otitis Media Inflammation of the middle ear, occurring commonly in children as a result of infection and often causing pain and temporary hearing loss.
77. Parallel Play The child plays near or beside another child using some or all of the same/similar materials as the other child without trying to modify or influence the other child and being mainly concerned with toy materials, not with relating to the other child. Predominates between 24-30 months.
78. Pathologist One who engages in the scientific study of the nature of disease and its causes, processes, development, and consequences.
79. PDD/NOS When children display similar behaviors to but do not meet the criteria for autistic disorder, they may receive a diagnosis of Pervasive Developmental Disorder-Not Otherwise Specified (PDD/NOS). It is a neurological disorder that affects such areas as a child’s ability to communicate, understand language, play, and relate to others.
80. Phonological Awareness / Processing Phonological awareness is a person’s explicit knowledge of the sound segments (phonemes) which comprise words. Phonological processing skills include the ability to recognize and produce rhyming words or patterns of alliteration, segmenting or breaking apart words into syllables/sounds, identify where a specific sound occurs in a word, and blend sounds into words. Problems in these areas indicate a weakness in phonological processing/awareness. Other symptoms seen with a phonological processing deficit are difficulty with rapid-naming tasks and incorrect repetition of multisyllabic words.
81. Phonological Disorder A disorder characterized by failure to use speech sounds that are appropriate for the individual’s age and dialect. Symptoms typically include but are not limited to failure in sound production and use, substitutions of one sound for another, and omissions of sounds. The pattern of errors may indicate use of inappropriate phonological processes/rules for the child’s age, e.g., final consonant deletion, or omission of final consonants in words when speaking.
82. Physical Therapist Provides assessment and treatment for disorders related to physical and musculoskeletal injuries. Therapy emphasizes remediation of or compensation for mobility, gait, muscle strength, and postural deficits.
83. Post-Lingual After the development of speech.
84. Pre-Lingual Before the development of speech.
85. Psychiatrist A physician who specializes in psychiatry. (MD)
86. Psychiatry The branch of medicine that deals with the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of mental and emotional disorders.
87. Psychologist A person trained and educated to perform psychological research, testing, and therapy. Holds a Master’s degree or ph.D in the field of psychology. Since not an MD, they may not prescribe medications.
88. Regional Centers The Centers shall function as a leader and advocate in promoting the continuing entitlement of citizens with developmental disabilities to all services that enable full community inclusion. The Association shall also participate in the development of public legislative policy and serve as a focal point for communication, education, training and prevention services.
89. Rehabilitation To restore to good health or useful life, as through therapy and education.
90. Remediation The act or process of correcting a fault or deficiency
91. Representational Play Pretend play which emerges when a child begins to use familiar objects in appropriate ways to represent their world (i.e. pushing a toy lawn mower over the grass). Begins to occur between 12- to 21-months of age.
92. Resource Specialist Typically, a Resource Specialist provides support, pertinent information, consultant services, and direct intervention to individuals, their family, and staff members regarding educational/learning needs and issues. Frequently found within the public school setting.
93. Sensory Integration The process of the brain organizing and interpreting sensory information.
94. Sensory Integration Dysfunction Sensory integration dysfunction is the inability to process certain information received through the senses.
95. Social Impairment Verbal and/or nonverbal difficulties in socializing and relating with peers.
96. Sociodramatic Play Play involving acting out scripts, scenes, etc. (i.e., from a favorite cartoon or book or from daily life). Children take/assume roles using themselves and/or characters (dolls, figures) as they interact together on common themes. A faciliator may assist ideas for characters, settings or props and use the children’s ideas for a story. Typically occurs between 3 – 4 years of age. As a child matures, themes, sequences, plans, problem solving, characters and so forth become more rich and they begin to organize other children for role play with independence (around 5 years of age).
97. Solitary Play The child plays alone with toys that are different from those used by the children within speaking distance and makes no effort to interact with other children. The child plays alone without concern for the activties of those around him/her. Seen by 15-18 mos up through 2 yrs.
98. Special Education Resources, services, classes, etc. for students with special educational needs. The public school system is involved with the identification of students with special needs, ages three on up. They provide assessment and, if appropriate, intervention services for those who qualify. Specific procedures are involved in assessment and intervention. If identified with special needs, an Individualized Educational Plan (IEP) is written for the child to address learning needs.
99. Speech a. The faculty or act of speaking. b. The faculty or act of expressing or describing thoughts, feelings, or perceptions by the articulation of words.
100. Speech Pathology The study of speech and language defects and disorders
101. Speech-Language Pathologist A professionals who is educated to assess speech and language development, treat language and speech disorders, and help people with swallowing disorders. Requires at least a Master’s Degree, state, and national credentials.
102. Stroke A group of brain disorders involving loss of brain functions that occur when the blood supply to any part of the brain is interrupted.
103. Stuttering Excessive repetition of parts of words, involutary prolongation of sounds in words, and/or struggle to “get words out.” A certain amount of dysfluent speech may be normal as a child learns to talk, and determination of stuttering is based on such information as the type, amount, and severity of the dysfluencies, the amount of struggle and tension during speech, and the length of time a child has been dysfluent. Stuttering tends to run in families. It is seen more in males than females. There is evidence that stuttering may be associated with some neurological deficits. There can also be a strong psychological component. Stuttering may persist into adulthood. Early intervention is important.
104. Symbolic Play Symbolic, or dramatic, play is when children begin to substitute one object for another. For example, using a hairbrush to represent a microphone. The child may pretend to do something (with or without the object present or with an object representing another object) or be someone. They may also pretend through other inanimate objects (e.g., has a doll pretend to feed another doll). Dramatic play with sequence of pretend acts predominates after 2 years of age.
105. Table Top Play Organized play that occurs at a table or related location. For example a board game, cards, etc.
106. Theory of Mind A “Theory of Mind” (often abbreviated as TOM) is a specific cognitive ability to understand others as intentional agents, that is, to interpret their minds in terms of theoretical concepts of intentional states such as beliefs and desires. It has been commonplace in philosophy (see Davidson 1984; Dennett 1987) to see this ability as intrinsically dependent upon our linguistic abilities. After all, language provides us a representational medium for meaning and intentionality : thanks to language we are able to describe other people’s and our own actions in an intentional way as in : “Ralph believes that Mary intends him to persuade George that p”. According to this view, the intentionality of natural language, that is, its suitability for expressing meanings and thoughts, is the key for understanding the intentionality of our theory of mind.
107. Therapist One who specializes in the provision of a particular therapy.
108. Therapy Treatment of illness, disability, or delay.
109. Tourette’s Syndrome A severe neurological disorder characterized by multiple facial and other body tics, usually beginning in childhood or adolescence and often accompanied by grunts and compulsive utterances, for example, interjections and obscenities. Also called Gilles de la Tourette syndrome.
110. Tramatic Brain Injury An acute assault/injury on the brain that can range from mild to severe.
111. Treatment Plan An organized course of action, involving goals/objectives and methods for treatment of a patient.
112. Tutor A person charged with the instruction and guidance of another. Used to describe one who assists another with homework and teaches academic subjects to pupils who require individual instruction. They do not test, remediate or deal with the social-emotional problems typically associated with learning disability. They may not have specialized training in the field of learning disabilities.
113. Velopharyngeal Dysfunction Velopharyngeal insufficiency (VPI) is also known as velopharyngeal dysfunction (VPD) or even velopharyngeal incompetence (VPI). The most common cause of velopharyngeal insufficiency is a history of cleft palate or submucous cleft. However, other causes include a short velum, poor pharyngeal wall movement, cranial base anomalies, a history of adenoidectomy, surgery for midface advancement, enlarged tonsils, and irregular adenoids. Neuromotor disorders can cause poor velopharyngeal movement, resulting in velopharyngeal dysfunction. Frequently, hypernasality is perceived.
114. Verbal Dyspraxia Motor speech disorder where the speaker shows reduced efficiency in accomplishing the oral postures necessary for phoneme production and the sequences of those postures for production of syllables, words, sentences, and/or conversation. The speaker may show groping behaviors and struggle to initiate, organize and carrythrough speech movement. It is a motor planning problem for speech. Generally, unlike dysarthria, there is nothing wrong with the speech muscles themselves.
115. Verbal Expression Also called Expressive Language. Refers to a person’s ability to express themselves at the word, phrase, sentence, multi-sentence and conversational levels. Includes ability to use age appropriate vocabulary, concepts and grammar to communicate needs, wants, desires, thoughts, and ideas. Verbal expression refers to the use of oral language for communication. However, expressive language includes the use of alternative or augmentative communication to include gestures, sign language, and simple to complex augmentative devices (for example, picture boards, alphabet boards, computerized systems with or without voice). Difficulties with expressive language can interfere with academic or occupational achievement or with social communication
116. Voice Disturbance In general, there are five categories that characterize the underlying causes of the majority of voice disorders; in decreasing order of frequency, these are: 1.Infectious and inflammatory conditions 2.Vocal misuse and abuse syndromes 3.Benign and malignant growths 4.Neuromuscular diseases 5.Psychogenic conditions. It is common for multiple factors to be involved in the development of a voice disorder. An example is a patient with Reinke’s edema, a term used to describe very swollen vocal cords. These patients almost always are heavy, long-term smokers, most of whom have gastroesophageal reflux as well. Another example of a voice issue is a patient with vocal nodules. This condition is always associated with signs of increased laryngeal muscle tension. Since voice disorders are often multifactorial, appropriate diagnosis and treatment in each case depends upon identification and correction of all of the underlying factors.
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